Livre édité en langue chinoise Shanghai, ISBN 978676208610175-5
Henri Dou - Chapitre 3 - Les pôles de Compétitivité en Europe et en France
The presentation of the poles of competitiveness in Europe and in France cannot be done through a simple analysis of the reports and various orientations given to the poles of competitiveness (clusters) in different states. To do so to start from Eastern Germany, Eastern Poland and Italian mezzogiorno is a good starting point, because it underlines most of the “nega development” items from which we can analyze the development of the successful European clusters. The clusters development in Europe is not a new “story” since it takes its roots before the second world war, throwing the base of the regional environmental context enabling the various actors of the European Regions to develop a successful industrial policy. It is a mere fact that the second world war, in spite of the geopolitical disruption introduced at the end of the conflict did not change the global industrial capacity of some regions because they have deeply rooted in the mind of people that their development is linked to technology and industry through regional collaboration. The fall of the Soviet Union, and the globalization, that is to say and increase competitiveness coming from everywhere and involving a level of competition yet not know in the western world, accelerated the today development of the clusters. It either comforted the old skills and networks or it created new ones in the regions where the classical industries disappeared or declined sharply because of the crisis, or for the region which did not get in the past an industrial development and have the will to create “from scratch” new ones. This is the goal of the work which is presented, to give a vision of the clusters or “poles of competitiveness” not only through the today critical analysis of their results, but to try to understand what are the “engines” which may start the conditions through which new industrial opportunities will be developed. After the analysis of the “nega development” context, we will move to the concept of innovation and how the clusters accelerate its application. It is not possible in this context to examine all the European clusters, this is why significant experiences will be described and commented. The case of the French cluster policy will be also compared to various other initiatives to pullout the best lessons to learn. The time constant as well as the political incentive play an important role in this development, this is why various comparisons will be done between the European zone and the Asian area. The global conclusion will try to set up some guidelines which can be applied in various regions of the world.